PIG Farming

Pig farming is one of the most profitable businesses in Zimbabwe and is one of the preferred farming models. Pigs have prolific breeding characteristics which enable the animals to multiply in the short to medium production cycle.

Pig Farming Information

Pig production as a business requires houses for all production stages (mating, farrowing, weaning, growing, and finishing) and biosecurity facilities. Provide substantial structures that can protect the pigs from extreme weather, which might affect their performance; the pig housing should be warm, strong, well-drained, and free of draughts.

  • Floors must have the correct shape with a wood float finish. Good drainage is required.
  • Roofing: corrugated iron or asbestos.
  • Doors: 0, 6 m wide x 0, 9 m high, preferably of metal (expensive) or blue gum offcuts.

Acquire high-quality genetic material and breeding stock. Select breeds or genetics suitable for the area

  • Large white has erect ears, good food converter
  • landrace has floppy ears, better conformation, more length (carcass)
  • Hampshire has excellent mothering ability
  • Duroc has fast growth, efficient feed conversion
The Pig Feed Specifications and Feeding Rates per period
Feed typeCrude Protein %Energy (MJ/Kg)Feeding PhaseFeeding Phase DaysFeed per pig per day (Kg)Total feed Kg/phase
Pig Creep  Weaner Meal19.813Day 7 to day 35280.36510
Pig Creep  Weaner Meal19.813Day 36 to day 70350.5 to 1.12530
Pig grower Meal17.013.75Day 71 to day 126551.582
Pig Finisher Meal16.113.3Day 127 to 163 or slaughter352.585
Grand Total    153 Days (21 weeks) 207 Kg

Ensure that feed meets all the nutritional requirements at different production stages

  • Choose the best pig feeds from Feedmix
  • Using the right pig feed at each stage of growth
  • Using pig concentrates for all the pig ranges to cut on feed costs, Correct mixing ratios need
  • Natural mating and artificial insemination to improve genetics
  • Proper piglet rearing system
  • Boar management to improve fertility
  • Proper breeding management systems
Concept of farrowing index
Assuming weaning at5 weeks
Boar to sow ratio: In small herds of up to 20 sows1: 15
Pregnancy114 days
Lactation35 days
Gilts: Mate at first heat after180 days.
Farrowing interval157 days
Farrowing index365 divide 157 days = 2.32

Employ competent workers, and take good care of them.

  • Care for the animals
  • Good litter management
  • Good Piglet rearing
  • Good animal welfare
  • Good boar management
  • Heat detection
  • Weekly weights achieved
  • Quality of service

Healthy pigs are productive pigs, and prevention is always cheaper than cure; ensure that the pigs are free from hunger, thirst, and pain at all times;

  • Pig vaccination program
  • sow number
  • litter number
  • service, farrowing, and weaning dates
  • number of services at each mating
  • quality of service (ranked as 1, 2, 3 or good, moderate or poor)
  • boar or AI used
  • mummified pigs and their size
  • number born alive and dead
  • weaning to service interval

Practice good biosecurity management

  • Boundary fence
  • Showers
  • Storage for chemicals
  • Wheel bath and foot baths on all entry points
  • Hand sanitizers
  • Logbook
  • Protective clothing
  • Slurry dam.
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